Back in the early days of Linux, the changes to the Operating System were so
dramatic that even when updating withing the same distro, in-place point
release updates were problematic enough and it was always
recommended that a major version release be done from scratch. There
were just too many major changes to the underlying subsystems and
package naming conventions. Doing an in-place update was just asking for
Modern distros have matured quite a bit,
although there are occasionally some major subsystem changes being made.
Yet it's never been easier to do an in-place major version upgrade.
I just did the upgrade on several Mageia4 systems and the results were consistent and satisfactory, not to mention simple.
Always backup critical information. Have a Mageia4 recovery disc on hand.
You can always download an ISO image to do the upgrade rather than do an in-place installation if your Internet connection is slow. DO NOT attempt an upgrade from the Live ISO image as it will overwrite your existing system.
Reboot. You'll be using a new kernel, new glibc and so on.
$ sudo shutdown -r now
Run the package update command from Step 4 again. It should return with no packages needing updating.
Done. But . . . .
Do Some Checking.
$ cat /etc/redhat-release
$ cat /etc/issue
Those commands should return the information that you are running Mageia5. I did have an issue on one machine and $ sudo urpmi mageia-release-commonfixed it. You can also manually edit those version files in /etc to change the version number.
There are several Dynamic DNS clients available for Linux. I have never had them work satisfactorily with my DNS provider ZoneEdit.
It is possible to use wget to send the current IP address to ZoneEdit (all on one line, of course). $/usr/bin/wget -O - --http-user=USER_NAME --http-passwd=PASSWORD 'http://dynamic.zoneedit.com/auth/dynamic.html?host=DOMAIN_NAME.COM'
This can be run as any user.
I have found it useful to use cron to run it. Instead of a specific time, I just use the macro @daily in my crontab.
NOTE: ZoneEdit is migrating to a user key rather than a password and, while they are maintaining backwards compatibility for now, you should migrate as soon as practical.
It appears that "the cloud" is the popular buzzword now. All cloud computing is is a remote file server where you can store, access, share and manipulate your files. While several commercial services are available, it's possible to create your own cloud service using the ownCloud software. As with any powerful server software, it's not out-of-the-box easy, but with some preparation and understanding, it's not that difficult. Most of this HOWTO is Mageia-specific; a lot of the configuration details are enumerated at the ownCloud website documents.
We're installing ownCloud on a minimal Mageia4 virtual machine using VirtualBox just to go through the process. There is no X-server, so it's all done on the command line.
Mageia5 documentation, installation discs and Errata can be found here.
Part One -- Installing the Apache Webserver
We must begin by installing the Apache webserver. It's certainly possible to use alternative webservers, but Apache is most common. Getting a working Apache webserver is pretty straightforward.
1. Install Apache and some other related modules we'll need. Eventually, you'll want to configure ownCloud to use SSL, so install that module now.
$ sudo urpmi apache apache-mod_ssl
Note that we don't install apache-mod_dav since ownCloud supplies its own DAV module.
2. Use drakconf on the command line and choose the selection that allows you to configure the firewall to allow the web server (and the ssh server for system administration via ssh).
3. Set inint to run the webserver on startup.
$ sudo chkconfig httpd on
4. Start the webserver.
$ sudo service httpd start
5. Check to see that the webserver is working by pointing you browser to the server IP. I used the text-based lynx browser since there is no X-server on this machine.
$ lynx localhost
And it works!
Part Two - Install Useful Dependencies
Use urpmi to install the following apps. The ownCloud documentation explains why they are useful. You might as well do it now.
By default, the Mageia package installs ownCloud in /use/share. There's nothing wrong with that although some people prefer it to be someplace else and, with some care, you can move it wherever you like. What's important is that the user apache own all the files and directories associated with ownCloud. We do that by using:
$ sudo chown -R apache:apache /usr/share/owncloud
NOTE: When upgrading using URPMI, the file ownerships are changed but can be easily fixed as shown above.
It's also necessary to provide an initial configuration file. The easiest way to do that is to copy the example they provide. That leaves us with a pristine example file to examine if we need.
When we run ownCloud the first time, it will strip out all the comments and fill in some of the values during its initial setup.
Part Four - Setup ownCloud
Before you access the admin part of ownCloud, you must be logging in from an authorized fully qualified domain name (FQDN). This is allowed by editing config.php to add your FQDN. If you are assigned a dynamic IP address, you must use a dynamic DNS service to get access; it's a security feature.
Once that is out of the way, access the admin pages by pointing your web browser to http://your.server.address/owncloud.
The complete configuration is actually a little more complicated that this and I'll be adding links to documents that provide details, but essentially this is what you need to to do to get ownCloud running on Mageia4. It's just not as simple as "urpmi owncloud".
NOTE: In an older installation of ownCloud, I had some difficulty getting ownCloud 6.x to run reliably, but Mageia5 now offers version 8.X. If you need a version newer than Mageia provides, you can simply download the latest tar.bz2 package from the ownCloud site and replace the contents of /usr/share/owncloud, making sure to change the ownership to apache:apache as noted above.
Ubuntu has just announced that you can use Ubuntu to watch Netflix. They make it seem like Ubuntu is something unique and is the only way you can watch Netflix on Linux.
I use the Mageia disto of Linux, so that Ubuntu-specific mojo won't work for me.
Thankfully, it's not Ubuntu, but the beta version of the Chrome browser that has implemented DRM extensions for HTML5 video (along with a recent version of the NSS library, which Mageia has). All one need do is spoof the User agent in Chrome to make Netflix think it's serving the video on a Windows platform and you are watching Netflix!
1. Download and install Google Chrome beta from here.
2. Install the User-Agent Switcher from here.
3, Configure the User-Agent Switcher to spoof the user-agent as Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/37.0.2049.0 Safari/537.36 by adding it to the Chrome profilelike this:
4. Log in to your Netflix account and enjoy the show.
5. No Ubuntu needed, just thank Nathan VanCamp.
This will describe how to install and configure the Transmission torrent application on Mageia5 in a headless configuration, how to make it automatically download torrents by placing a .torrent file in a particular directory and admin the client remotely using both a cli (command line interface) and a GUI (graphical user interface) application.
Transmission has both a Homepage, a Wiki and a Forum, so there's no lack of help and support. But as for installing it as a headless server on Mageia, all we found were HOWTOs for Debian/Ubuntu systems.
We're assuming that you have Mageia4 installed and have configured your user to use the sudo command.
Begin by installing the transmission daemon and the command-line client.
$ sudo urpmi transmission-daemon transmission-cli
This installs transmission-daemon, transmission-cli and transmission-common (which is mostly the documentation). All the binaries will be found in /usr/bin. The transmission package also installs a Java-based web client at /usr/share/transmission/web/index.html.
CREATE A USER
For transmission-daemon, all settings are kept in $HOME/.config/transmission-daemon. We want to create a user named "transmission". Other distros make the "home" directory something like /usr/share/transmission or /var/lib/transmission; it can really be anything you want. For us, creating /home/transmission has a special benefit.
Having a password allows us to use scp to remotely send a .torrent file to /home/transmission/ on our remote server and the torrent will automatically start when we have properly configured the transmission-daemon to do so.
OBTAIN AN INIT.D SCRIPT
There is an Debian/ubuntu-specific init.d script available from the Transmission site, but it won't work for RedHat-derived distros like Mageia.
You can download an init.d script useful for RHEL and Fedora (and Mageia) written by Jason Friedlan. It's located at his website; you'll need to copy and paste it into a text editor.
To verify that our script is valid for init.d invoke:
$ sudo chkconfig --add transmission-daemon
Now set the runlevels for transmission-daemon with:
$ sudo chkconfig --level 345 transmission-daemon on
and verify it with:
$ sudo chkconfig --list transmission-daemon
CREATE THE BASIC FILES
Now that our service is configured, let's start and stop the daemon to make certain it works.
$ sudo service transmission-daemon start $ sudo service transmission-daemon stop
$ sudo ls -al /home/transmission
This will reveal that the .config directory has been created and we will find that /home/transmission/.config/transmission/settings.json has also been created.
The editable text file settings.json contains the default configuration for our daemon. It can be edited with a text editor and an explanation of the various options can be found at the Transmission Wiki.
Some suggested changes are (the trailing commas are important!):
Add a blocklist: - "blocklist-url": "http://www.example.com/blocklist", + "blocklist-url": "http://list.iblocklist.com/?list=bt_level1&fileformat=p2p&archiveformat=gz",
Allow all users on the network to access the web interface: - "rpc-whitelist": "127.0.0.1", - "rpc-whitelist-enabled": true,
Setting a username and password to stop all users but us is important, but this must be done with the transmission-remote command because the password is hashed for security and not stored as plain-text. $ su - transmission $ transmission-remote --auth username:password
You can use the application transmission-remote to change any of the settings; look at the man page for details or at the Wiki page.
You'll need to set the home directory to auto-download any torrents. First, we'll need to enable it, then set the directory. As shown here, we'll do it on one line each: $ su - transmission -c transmission-remote --watch-dir-enabled true $ su - transmission -c transmission-remote --watch-dir /home/transmission
And, we'll have it keep downloaded torrents in /home/transmission/Downloads. $ su - transmission -c transmission-remote download-dir /home/transmission/Downloads
If you don't change a setting, transmission will use the default setting. You can see the default setting by examining the settings.json file or looking at the Wiki page referenced just above.
If you are GUI-centric and command-line-phobic, install the GTK or QT clients and as the user "transmission" use the transmission client GUI to change the settings. That's pretty easy.
NOW START TRANSMISSION $sudo service transmission-daemon start
And you are ready to use it.
START TORRENTS AUTOMATICALLY
Instead of clicking on a torrent link, save the linked .torrent file instead and move it to the torrent user.
$sudo mv *.torrent /home/torrent/
Now the download starts automatically! You can even do this from a remote computer, so if your server is at home and you are at work, just copy the .torrent file over the Internet and the download will be done by the time you get home.
To admin your Transmission server, there's the provided Java web client, or a stand-alone application called
Microsoft ended support for WindowsXP on April 8th of 2014. But they will continue to support the Point Of Sale version of WindowsXP, known as Windows Embedded POSReady 2009, for five more years.
To receive these updates for your WindowsXP computer, you need to alter a registry entry to fool the Microsoft Update server into thinking that you are using Windows Embedded POSReady 2009.
Here is a .reg file that looks like this if you view it in a text editor:
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00
Download and double-click on the .reg file, then just run Windows Update as usual.
Not all the available updates are useful for you; there's no need to select the updates for Windows Server 2003, for example. However, even if you do they will just fail to install. This means that Automatic Update will continue to work as before until 2019 (You do have that turned on, right?) and Microsoft Security Essentials will continue to update (you do have that installed, right?). You should be ready for a new computer by 2019 anyway.
If you have a 64-bit Windows XP installation, look here for the appropriate instructions.
One last note. It's not likely that any of the future updates of Windows Embedded POSReady 2009 will update the Internet Explorer web browser and newer version of the browser are not compatible with WindowsXP. Sadly for all of us, Internet Explorer is the target (or the vector) of most all of the malware attacks. Here's how to protect yourself: DO NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES CONTINUE TO USE INTERNET EXPLORER. Replace it with the most recent edition of the Firefox browser and install the AdBlock extension. Most malware nowadays is installed through Internet Explorer via malicious ads that you are completely unaware of.
There are also attack vectors through Microsoft Office. A free and capable alternative is LibreOffice.
An excellent free and capable email application and alternative to Outlook Express is Thunderbird.
I also highly recommend three additional programs for Windows XP:
Piriform's CCleaner to clean up unnecessary files on your drive, since Windows loves lot's of free space on the drive and doesn't work well when you fill up more than about 2/3 of the disk. Internet Explore leaves a lot of useless files that never seem to get deleted. Get the Free Download version and DO NOT install any toolbars when prompted.
Piriform's Defraggler to defragment your drive after you clean it up, since Windows loves a defragmented drive. Get the Free Download version and DO NOT install any toolbars if prompted.
The free Microsoft utility Page Defrag. This authentic Microsoft utility will defrag the special system files that a regular defrag application like Defraggler can't touch. You only need to run this once in a while.
Try them all; you'll be a happier WindowsXP user.
UPDATE: Sadly, Microsoft seems to have fixed this loophole.